When you execute a shell script it inherits all the environment variables present in the parent shell. Sometimes that can cause unintended consequences. For example, I recently ran into a situation where one of my scripts in common use by our group failed for one of the users. I eventually tracked it down to the JAVA_HOME variable that user had set in his bash profile. The user’s JAVA_HOME being inherited by the script was not set to an appropriate value. Ideally the script should have set all the environment variables it needs. However, in this case, I had failed to explicitly set JAVA_HOME in my script, an oversight masked by the fact my own JAVA_HOME was set to a valid value so the script ran normally for me.
To reduce the chance of this type of problem reoccurring with other variables I decided to clear all the inherited environment variables at the start of the script. That way any other environment dependency not defined by the script would immediately reveal itself during the script debugging phase.
I could not find a simple builtin method to run the script without the inherited environment, (aside from the impractical “
env -i scriptname“) [ edit 8/28/2010: see Gordon’s
env - /bin/bash suggestion below and you probably don’t need to read the rest of this posting ], so I put a one-liner in the script to unset each variable (BASH syntax):
unset $(/usr/bin/env | egrep '^(\w+)=(.*)$' | \ egrep -vw 'PWD|USER|LANG' | /usr/bin/cut -d= -f1);
env prints the environment’s variable=value pairs. The
cut at the end splits the pairs and returns the variable name.
egrep filters for the variable=value pairs that start at the beginning of the line. This was necessary because GNU screen sets a multiline
TERMCAP=SC|screen|VT 100/ANSI X3.64 virtual terminal:\ :DO=\E[%dB:LE=\E[%dD:RI=\E[%dC:UP=\E[%dA:bs:bt=\E[Z:\ :cd=\E[J:ce=\E[K:cl=\E[H\E[J:cm=\E[%i%d;%dH:ct=\E[3g:\
I wanted just the first line and needed to discard the others so the
cut would not split them and return bogus variable names, like ‘
egrep is optional but allows me to skip selected variables so they retain their preset values.
With this in place, if I attempt to use an environment variable in my script (or in a program called by my script) it will fail unless I explicitly set the value. This provides me the opportunity to ensure the script will behave consistently for all users on the system.